Sequence of events
On 14 December 2019, two pilots were preparing to conduct a flight review in an Angel Aircraft Corporation Model 44 aircraft, registered VH-IAZ (IAZ) (Figure 1). The aircraft was owned and operated by the pilot under review, who was to occupy the left seat. The right-seat pilot had a Grade 1 flight instructor rating. The flight was to be conducted as a private flight and the right-seat pilot was the pilot in command for the flight.
Source: Provided to the ATSB
Closed circuit television footage from Mareeba Airport, Queensland, showed the aircraft taxi and park outside a hangar at 0922 Eastern Standard Time. A witness observed the left-seat pilot in the aircraft conducting engine run-ups between 0915 and 0930. The aircraft engines were then shut down.
At 1046, the pilots taxied the aircraft from outside the hangar towards the runway intersection. In recorded radio transmissions, the left-seat pilot broadcast on the common traffic advisory frequency that IAZ was taxiing for runway 28.
At 1054, the left-seat pilot broadcast that IAZ was entering and backtracking the runway and 4 minutes later, that the aircraft had commenced the take-off roll on runway 28. Witnesses heard the aircraft during the take-off roll and reported that it sounded like one of the engines was hesitating and misfiring. An aircraft maintainer at the airport observed the aircraft take off and reported seeing black sooty smoke trailing from the right engine. He then watched the aircraft climb slowly and turn right towards the north. Another witness who heard the aircraft in flight reported that it sounded normal for that aircraft, which had a distinctive sound because the engine’s exhaust gases pass through the propellers.
Once airborne, the pilot broadcast that they were ‘making a low-level right-hand turn and then climbing up to not above 4,500 [feet] for the south-west training area.’
About 2 minutes later, the right-seat pilot broadcast that they were just to the west of the airfield in the training area at 2,500 ft and on climb to 4,000 ft, and communicated with the pilot of a helicopter operating in the area.
After 8 minutes in the training area, the left-seat pilot broadcast that they were inbound from the training area and 2 minutes later, that they were joining crosswind for runway 28. No further transmissions were heard from the aircraft.
Witnesses then saw the aircraft touch down on the runway and take off again, and heard one engine ‘splutter’ as the aircraft climbed to between 300 and 450 ft above ground level. At about 1115, the aircraft was observed overhead a banana plantation beyond the end of the runway in a right descending turn, before it suddenly rolled right. Witnesses observed the right wing drop to near vertical and the aircraft collided with terrain in a cornfield. Both pilots were fatally injured and the aircraft was destroyed.
Weather and environmental information
At 1115 EST, the temperature was 34 ºC, the dewpoint 15 ºC, and the wind from 266º at 6 kt gusting to 9 kt. There was no cloud and the QNH was 1012 hPa.
The aerodrome elevation was 1,650 ft and with the given temperature and QNH, the density altitude was 4,440 ft.
The aircraft was not equipped with a flight data recorder or cockpit voice recorder, nor was it required to be. A witness reported watching the aircraft track on OzRunways, but the ATSB has not yet obtained any recorded data for the flight.
The Angel Aircraft Corporation Model 44 was an eight-seat, twin-engine aircraft with retractable tricycle landing gear. It was designed for short take-off and landing distances, long endurance and the ability to carry a heavy payload. The aircraft was powered by two Lycoming IO-540-M1C engines with Hartzell three-blade constant speed feathering HC-E3YR-2ALTFC pusher propellers mounted aft of the engines.
IAZ was manufactured in the United States in 2008 with serial number 004. It was first registered in Australia in January 2010 as VH-IOZ, deregistered in November 2017 and reregistered as VH-IAZ in March 2019. The aircraft was approved to operate under the instrument flight rules and in the charter category.
The factory-rebuilt right engine was installed in May 2017 and had run for a total of 2.2 hours before the accident flight. The factory-overhauled left engine was installed in June 2016 and had run for a total of 12.7 hours prior to the accident flight.
On 10 December 2019, two new spark plugs were fitted to cylinder No. 3 on the right engine and one spark plug was replaced on cylinder No. 1 on the left engine due to magneto drops during ground runs. The engines were subsequently ground run satisfactorily.
The last maintenance release (MR) was issued on 30 April 2019 and the aircraft had 1,803.5 hours total time in service. No daily inspection or additional flight time was recorded on the MR.
The pilot under review (left seat) had accrued over 20,000 flying hours, approximately 300 of which were in IAZ.
The right-seat pilot held an air transport pilot licence and had accrued approximately 5,000 hours of aeronautical experience. He had not previously flown IAZ.
Wreckage and impact information
Examination of the aircraft wreckage indicated that the aircraft impacted terrain right wingtip first, then nose, followed by the left wingtip. The aircraft then pivoted about the left wing and the fuselage came to rest upright (Figure 2).
The investigation is continuing and will include examination of the following:
- recovered components including engines and propellers
- the aircraft’s maintenance and operational records
- aircraft and site survey data
- pilot qualifications, experience and medical history
- regulatory requirements for flight reviews
- previous research and similar occurrences.
The information contained in this preliminary report is released in accordance with section 25 of the Transport Safety Investigation Act 2003 and is derived from the initial investigation of the occurrence. Readers are cautioned that new evidence will become available as the investigation progresses that will enhance the ATSB's understanding of the accident as outlined in this report. As such, no analysis or findings are included in this report.
- Flight reviews are required to ensure pilots continue to be competent in exercising the privileges of their licences and ratings.
- Eastern Standard Time (EST): Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) + 10 hours.
- Runway number: the number represents the magnetic heading of the runway. Runway 28 at Mareeba was on a magnetic heading of 283°.
- QNH: the altimeter barometric pressure subscale setting used to indicate the height above mean seal level.
- Density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for temperature. In layman's terms, it directly affects the performance parameters of any aircraft, and in effect it is the equivalent altitude of where, performance-wise, the aircraft ‘thinks’ it is. The higher the density altitude, the lower the aircraft performance, and vice versa. (Skybrary)
- OzRunways is an electronic flight bag application that provides navigation, weather, area briefings and other flight-planning information.
- Feathering: the rotation of propeller blades to an edge-on angle to the airflow to minimise aircraft drag following an in-flight engine failure or shutdown.
- Instrument flight rules (IFR): a set of regulations that permit the pilot to operate an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), which have much lower weather minimums than visual flight rules (VFR). Procedures and training are significantly more complex as a pilot must demonstrate competency in IMC conditions while controlling the aircraft solely by reference to instruments. IFR-capable aircraft have greater equipment and maintenance requirements.
- Maintenance release: an official document, issued by an authorised person as described in Regulations, which is required to be carried on an aircraft as an ongoing record of its time in service (TIS) and airworthiness status. Subject to conditions, a maintenance release is valid for a set period, nominally 100 hours TIS or 12 months from issue.
The ATSB is investigating a collision with terrain involving an Angel Aircraft Corporation Model 44 aircraft, registered VH-IAZ, near Mareeba Airport, Queensland, on 14 December 2019.
Shortly after taking off from runway 28, the aircraft entered a right turn, descended and subsequently impacted terrain about 0.5 km beyond the runway. Two pilots were on board and both sustained fatal injuries. The aircraft was destroyed.
The evidence collection phase of the investigation will include examination of the aircraft and accident site, interviewing witnesses and reviewing recorded audio and flight data.
A final report will be released at the conclusion of the investigation. Should a critical safety issue be identified during the course of the investigation, the ATSB will immediately notify relevant parties so appropriate safety action can be taken.
|Date:||14 December 2019||Investigation status:||Active|
|Time:||11:15 AEDT||Investigation level:||Defined - click for an explanation of investigation levels|
|Location:||near Mareeba Airport||Investigation phase:||Final report: Internal review|
|State:||Queensland||Occurrence type:||Collision with terrain|
|Release date:||11 February 2020||Occurrence category:||Accident|
|Report status:||Preliminary||Highest injury level:||Fatal|
|Anticipated completion:||4th Quarter 2020|
|Aircraft model||Angel Aircraft Corp 44|
|Operator||Anju Azul Aviation|
|Type of operation||Flying Training|
|Damage to aircraft||Destroyed|
|Departure point||Mareeba, Queensland|