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Recommendation issued to: AirServices Australia

Recommendation details
Output No: R19980024
Date issued: 12 June 1998
Safety action status:
Background:

SUBJECT

The Advanced Technology Aircraft Survey - Phase Two


OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the phase 2 study were to:

Determine specific types of human/system interface problems that are occurring on advanced aircraft in service within the Asia-Pacific region;
Collect information on flight-deck errors;
Assess the severity of errors;
Identify design-induced errors; and
Identify areas where pilots inappropriately manipulate automated systems.


SCOPE

The report dealt with information supplied by respondents to the Advanced Technology Aircraft Safety Survey and provided a detailed analysis of the answers to both the 'open' and 'closed' questions.

The accompanying analysis did not include the responses to closed questions by Second Officers or McDonnell Douglas pilots due to their disproportionately low representation within the sample. However, all written comments made by all respondents have been included and analysed.

The survey covers a range of technologies from the early 1980s to the present. However, the survey sought pilots' perceptions of the technology that they were using. Despite any differences in technology, the Bureau believes that the survey results are applicable to aviation in the Asia Pacific region.


SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction

The following recommendations are organised according to their corresponding chapter. Where applicable recommendations have been address to:

Airservices Australia;

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia);

Aircraft design authorities; and

Airlines within the Asia-Pacific region.

However, this does not restrict the applicability of the recommendation to the above mentioned agencies. BASI encourages foreign agencies, both government and civil, to adopt all, or any, of the following recommendations in the interests of improving aviation safety throughout the international aviation industry.

The objectives of this project are largely proactive. Our task has been to determine specific errors and assess the severity of those errors. Consequently some of the following recommendations are phrased in a proactive sense. Regulatory authorities, aircraft manufacturers and airline operators are now required to do the same, basing their response on the evidence provided by 1268 pilots, many of whom are line pilots with considerable experience. Our concern is that appropriate mechanisms and mindset are not yet in place to assess proactive recommendations. This is the greatest challenge currently before the aviation industry.

List of Relevant Recommendations by Report Chapter:

1. Air Traffic Control

R980024 to Airservices Australia
R980025 to the Civil Aviation Safety Authority
R980026 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

2. Automation

R980027 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

3. Crew Resource Management

R980028 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

4. Flying Skills

R980029 to the Civil Aviation Safety Authority

5. General

R980030 to The Civil Aviation Safety Authority
R980031 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region
R980032 to design authorities and airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

6. Modes

R980033 to aircraft design authorities
R980034 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region
R980035 to the Civil Aviation Safety Authority

7. Situational Awareness

R980036 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

8. System design

R980037 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region
R980038 to aircraft design authorities


9. Training

R980039 to the Civil Aviation Safety Authority
R980040 to airline operators within the Asia-Pacific Region

Output text

The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation recommends that Airservices Australia:

Review their airways and procedures design philosophies to:

(a) ensure that STAR, SID and airways design is compatible with aircraft FMS programs;

(b) allow a +/- 10 kt range with respect to descent speed below 10,000 ft to allow for the tolerances of FMS-equipped aircraft, with the aim of reducing the requirement for system work-arounds;

(c) provide ATC personnel with the information on the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced technology aircraft; and

(d) seek the co-operation of airline operators for a program of advanced technologies flight deck observation for all ATC personnel during both their initial and recurrent training.

Initial response
Date issued: 13 September 1999
Response from: AirServices Australia
Action status: Closed - Accepted
Response text:

RE: BASI Interim Report on the Review of Advanced Technology Aircraft Phase 2 - Air Safety Recommendation R19980024

I refer to the above report and Recommendation R1 9980024 on Airservices Australia. The following is provided in response:

R19980024

"The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation recommends that Airservices Australia review their airways procedures design philosophies to:

(a) ensure that STAR, SID and airways design is compatible with aircraft FMS programs."

ACCEPTED

Airservices Australia currently adheres to the ICAO Doc 8168 Standards and Recommended Practices for developing STAR and SID procedures and takes into consideration FMS programs.

Airservices has an agreement with Australian domestic airlines to flight test its STAR and SID procedures in the airline flight simulators prior to introduction thereby ensuring compatibility with on board systems and procedures.

"(b) allow a +/- 10 kt range with respect to descent speed below 10, 000 ft to allow for the tolerances of FMS-equipped aircraft, with the aim of reducing the requirement for system work-arounds."

ACCEPTED

AIP ENR 1. 1 -12 states " A speed variation of more than +/- 10 kt or +/- MO.025 must be advised to ATC." This implies that the recommended speed variation +/- 10 kt is already acceptable and no change is required.

"(c) provide ATC personnel with information on the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced technology aircraft."

ACCEPTED

Airservices Australia is currently developing an aircraft performance training package for delivery to air traffic services staff. This package will include information on a range of aircraft encountered in Australian airspace including advanced technology types.

"(d) seek the cooperation of airline operators for a program of advanced technologies flight deck observation for all ATC personnel during their initial and recurrent training."

ACCEPTED

Airservices Australia is currently negotiating with at least one of its major airline customers to re-establish a program of mutual exchange and familiarisation not only for air traffic controllers on aircraft but also for pilots in the ATC Awareness Course and on live ATC console familiarisation visits.

Air traffic controllers and pilots will be encouraged to attend these familiarisation visits and to avail themselves of the opportunities to interface with their counterparts in the aviation industry.

 
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Last update 01 April 2011