Published: 23 February 2018
Sequence of events
On 20 January 2018, at about 1645 Eastern Daylight-saving Time, a Cessna 182P aircraft, registered VH-TSA, departed The Vale airstrip, Sheffield, Tasmania, for a private flight to a private airstrip at Tomahawk, Tasmania. The flight was a distance of 79 NM, tracking to the east‑north‑east at 3,500 ft above mean sea level (AMSL) and was conducted under the visual flight rules. On board were the pilot occupying the front left seat and a passenger (also a qualified pilot), seated in the front right seat.
The pilot broadcast on the Multicom frequency when the aircraft was 10 NM from, and inbound to, the destination airstrip. Recorded data showed that the aircraft commenced a descent from its cruising altitude of 3,500 ft at 1712. The pilot reported that he sighted the airstrip after descending to about 1,000 ft AMSL. There was no windsock at the airstrip. The pilot anticipated that the wind would be from the same north‑westerly direction they reported encountering during the flight, and therefore decided to land towards the north-west.
The pilot conducted a number of orbits (Figure 1) and later reported manoeuvring the aircraft prior to approaching the runway because the aircraft was too high and its groundspeed was faster than normal for the approach.
Source: AvPlan data – annotated by ATSB
At about 1720, a witness at the property saw and heard the aircraft operating south-east of the airstrip. A second witness, who was standing between the house and airstrip, then saw the aircraft approaching the runway heading in a westerly direction.
One of the witnesses was concerned that the pilot was attempting to land the aircraft towards the west, with a tailwind estimated to be about 15 kt. He drove his vehicle onto the runway towards the approaching aircraft, with headlights on and hazards lights flashing, in an attempt to communicate to the pilot to abort the landing.
The pilot thought the driver was indicating where to land and continued the approach. As the aircraft continued towards him, the driver vacated the runway.
Tyre marks on the grass showed that the aircraft first touched down 433 m beyond the runway threshold, with 284 m of runway remaining. The aircraft bounced several times along the airstrip before the pilot initiated a go-around, applying full power, to which the engine appears to have responded normally. The pilot reported raising the aircraft’s nose and the aircraft commenced climbing, however it collided with a tree and terrain beyond the end of the runway. The aircraft came to rest on its right side (Figures 2 and 3).
The passenger sustained fatal injuries and the pilot was seriously injured. The aircraft was substantially damaged.
The pilot held a current Private Pilot (Aeroplane) Licence issued by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority on 17 February 2016, a single‑engine aeroplane class rating, and a manual propeller pitch control design feature endorsement, as required for the flight.
The pilot also held a Class 2 Aviation Medical Certificate valid until 8 November 2019 with restrictions, including that vision correction must be worn and reading correction was to be available while exercising the privileges of the licence. In conjunction with a flight review conducted on 18 December 2017, the pilot had successfully completed an operational check of his vision following eye surgery.
The pilot had about 560 hours total aeronautical experience.
The passenger also held a current Private Pilot (Aeroplane) Licence and Class 2 Aviation Medical Certificate. The passenger had about 1,280 hours total aeronautical experience.
The Cessna Aircraft Company 182P is a four-seat, high‑wing, single-engine aircraft equipped with fixed tricycle landing gear. The aircraft was powered by a Teledyne Continental Motors O-470-S engine and fitted with a McCauley two-blade, constant-speed propeller.
VH-TSA, serial number 182-64969, was a 1976-model 182P aircraft, recorded as being manufactured in the United States in 1977. It was first registered in Australia in 1978 and registration was transferred to the current operator in 2012. The aircraft’s total time in service was 6,160 hours.
The aircraft was operated in the private category.
The runway was 717 m long, orientated in a direction of 281° magnetic, and had a short grass surface. The runway sloped down towards the west at an average slope of 1.5° for the first 500 m, and was then level. A shorter runway heading 050°/230° intersected the main runway just east of its midpoint. White plastic markers indicated the eastern and western thresholds and the crossing runway intersection. There was no windsock at the airstrip.
The aircraft tracked east-north-east to Tomahawk, and the pilot reported having a westerly tailwind of 18 kt during the cruise. At the landing airstrip, witnesses reported an easterly wind of about 15 kt at the time of the accident. There was high overcast cloud.
The aircraft was not equipped with a flight data or cockpit voice recorder, nor was it required to be. However, the aircraft was fitted with a GPS that could record data. The aircraft’s track was also recorded on a personal device carried in the aircraft (Figure 1). The last data for the flight was recorded at 1731.
Wreckage and impact information
Examination of the accident site and aircraft wreckage indicated that the aircraft’s right wing struck the branch of a tree 5.6 m above and about 36 m beyond the end of the runway.
The right wing strut fractured and separated from the aircraft and the wing failed, but remained connected to the fuselage. The aircraft subsequently rolled to the right and pitched nose-down. The propeller and the front of the engine struck the ground and the aircraft rotated about the impact point before coming to rest on its right side. During the impact sequence, the left wing strut fractured at the fuselage and the left wing came to rest on top of the right wing (Figure 3).
Fuel leaked from aircraft’s ruptured wing fuel tanks, but there was no fire.
Examination of the aircraft did not identify any pre-existing faults and the pilot reported that the aircraft, including the engine, was operating normally at the time of the accident. The bending and impact marks on the propeller blades indicated that the engine was producing significant power when the blades struck the ground.
The right flap detached following impact with the tree and the left flap was extended. The flap actuator extension indicated that the flaps were in the fully extended position – 40° flap.
The lap sash and shoulder strap of both seatbelts were fastened at impact.
The investigation is continuing and will include examination of the following:
- electronic data
- aircraft and site survey data
- forecast and actual weather conditions
- pilot qualifications and experience
The information contained in this web update is released in accordance with section 25 of the Transport Safety Investigation Act 2003 and is derived from the initial investigation of the occurrence. Readers are cautioned that new evidence will become available as the investigation progresses that will enhance the ATSB's understanding of the accident as outlined in this web update. As such, no analysis or findings are included in this update.