As outlined in the safety actions to address safety issue AO-2014-190-SI-10, in July 2010 CASA issued the Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) 1003OS (Carriage of Fuel on Flights to a Remote Island). The NPRM proposed amending Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 82.0 to require air ambulance flights to Australian remote islands to carry sufficient fuel for an alternate aerodrome. This change was implemented in December 2014.
In June 2012 (during the original investigation into the 18 November 2009 accident involving VH‑NGA), CASA advised the ATSB of its intent to regulate air ambulance/patient transfer operations as follows:
▸Air Ambulance/Patient transfer operations in the proposed operational Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASRs) will be regulated to safety standards that are similar to those for passenger operations.
▸While CASR Parts 138/136 will be limited to domestic operations and, if CASA decides to retain Air Ambulance/Patient transfer operations in these rule suites, any such operation wishing to operate internationally will also be required to comply with CASR Part 119. If, however, CASA decides to move these operations into CASR Parts 121/135/133 they will already be required to comply with CASR Part 119. Either way, Air Ambulance/Patient transfer operations will be regulated to the same standard as Air Transport Operations (ATO). In relation to Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, all ATO which include Air Ambulance/Patient transfer, will be required to carry mainland alternate fuel.
▸CASR Parts 119/121/135/133 are expected to be finalised by the end of 2012 and are currently proposed to commence in June 2014. CASR Parts 138/136 are expected to be made by June 2013 and are proposed to commence in June 2014. Given that the drafting of these CASR Parts are subject to third party arrangements (Attorney-General’s Department) and CASA and the industry’s ability to effectively implement the new rule suite, these timelines are subject to change.
In July 2013, CASA issued the Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) 1304OS (Regulations of aeroplane and helicopter ‘ambulance function’ flights as Air Transport operations). With the release of the NPRM, CASA stated:
The purpose of this NPRM is to advise the public and aviation community of CASA's intent to regulate, to the greatest extent practicable, ambulance function flights to the same safety standards that are currently applicable to AT operations. This will extend to adoption of AOC certification requirements, operating standards and maintenance standards.
The NPRM outlines a new and updated policy that specifically categorises Medical Transport (MT) flights so that they operate under the requirements of an AT AOC (issued under Part 119 of CASR) and the applicable operational rule set (i.e. Part 133 of CASR for helicopter operations and either Part 121 or 135 of CASR for aeroplane operations).
The proposed policy will ensure that appropriate mechanisms are included within the AT regulations to afford MT flights with:
▸sufficient operational flexibility
▸the safety benefits available under Part 119 of CASR.
CASA considers that Part 119 of CASR, with its robust operator management systems, should be implemented by (and integrated into) these essential passenger transport services. This policy and change of classification is based on CASA’s recognition that the focus of these operations is primarily passenger-carrying in nature, albeit in a highly specialised manner, and conforms more closely to international norms for the conduct of these operations.
However, CASA acknowledges that, in some cases, applying all of the Air Transport Operations suite of standards to MT flights would not be practicable. Due to the highly specialised nature of some MT flights, some of the rules in these operational Parts will not apply and other requirements that are not characteristic of normal AT operations will be addressed specifically for MT flights.
In October 2014, CASA published a summary of responses to the NPRM. Its conclusion stated:
From the responses received, CASA believes there is strong support for the movement of the current aerial work purpose ‘ambulance functions’ into the AT rule set under the CASR 1998 operational and certification rule structure.
In this regard, CASA acknowledges the industry's desire for some possible amendments to the proposal and the need for close consultation throughout this regulatory change project and its ongoing development.
CASA agrees with the industry feedback regarding fatigue management of flight and other crew members in MT operations. Without limiting the availability of access to an FRMS, a specific appendix for CAO 48.1 will be required. The development of this appendix will be part of a separate project to be managed by CASA Standards SMS and Human Factors Section subject matter experts.
CASA will now commence compiling final policy and drafting instructions to move this project forward and will (when these are in a suitable form) organise a consultation meeting with the MT industry to review these developments.
In March 2017, CASA advised the ATSB:
Drafting instructions have been issued to the Office of Parliamentary Counsel (OPC) to incorporate medical transport flights into the applicable Air Transport Parts.
Initial drafts of CASR Parts 119, 133, and 135, with medical transport operations included, have been received from the OPC and reviewed by CASA. In addition, these drafts have been road tested by internal review teams. The results of these reviews are now being compiled into further instructions for the OPC.
The continuing development of these amendments, together with the drafting of the MOS for each Part, is ongoing.
The ATSB acknowledges CASA has introduced improved fuel planning requirements for air ambulance flights to Australian remote islands. The ATSB also acknowledges CASA has taken significant steps since 2012 to reclassify air ambulance (medical transport) operations as air transport operations. However, the ATSB is concerned that over 4 years since the NPRM, this change has not yet been introduced. Accordingly, the ATSB issues the following recommendation.